Thursday, January 31, 2008


In the last month Perou made a request to International Court of Justice of the Hague demanding to Chile new maritimes borders.In 1879 ended a war betewen Chilean armies and a confederation formed by peruvian and bolivian armies.Chile won and Bolivia lost is acess to sea and Perou a northen part of his territory.After acording Chile l many documents were signed after peace and no delimitation problems are in the actual frontiers with Perou.In fact till the last year after 130 year s after war ending was no perouvian alegations about the maritime border.In fact peruvian signed with Chile an Ecautot to delimit fishing areas in 1950.Last week the former canditat to perouvian presidency the leftist ans nacionalist Ollanta Humala a ex official of peruvian army said in Lima that if Chile refuse the accept a eventual prononcement of international court in favour to peruvian interest,Perou must use his army.The isue is far top be simple.To perouvian the line is not horizonal to land delimitation ans adeed 60.000 km2 to peruvian sea.Besides complicates to bolivian mediterrean solution by a eventual land corridor by a actual Tarapaca Region in chilean territory and former a peruvian province. A very rich area to fishing industries.
In the past pPeru has a delimitation contraversial issue with Ecuator in fact was a armed conflict at the frontier betewen both countries.Ecuator has a more friendly relationship with Chile and last week some military observer at Perou claims about the eventual selling of two modernized fregates of the chilean navy reserve to Ecuator. Besides is in suspense talks about a free trade agreement and about limits to armaments expending.To complicate more the lanscape Chilean growing economy has received abour 60.000 peruvian migrants as chilean workers specialy in Santiago. An also many comercial interest of chilean firms are located in Perou.
For all this is a good question of The Economist if in the next years the neighbours coud be also friends.The answer could be pesimistics because in 1970 1980 decade both countries ruyled by military government was near the war,That seems actually unthinkable but is not eay to say that friendship is an easy task.

Wednesday, January 30, 2008


Chile has not oil at all.The main energy source is imported gas and fuel.But electricity generated by hidroelectrical central is huge.In fact the country is plenty of rivers who ran from Andean melting ice glaciers in water to blend with Pacific waters .Chile north is a desert.The center and the south are very rainy.The solution was build a dams net over the rivers to generate energy.But a growing economy and more demands of modernity,the rising prices of oil and the chilean desire not depend by political reasons of foreign gas from Bolivia or Argentina make hidroelectricity the cheaper and internal natural source of energy.But the problem were the rivers.More and more public opinion is opposed by eological reason to build more dams.In fact Endesa a former chilean state entreprise now in spanish private hands is planing profit of the Aysen rivers named Pascua,Backer and to build there three new central from now till 2015.Consecuences about 94 km2 or 6.000 hectares flooded and under water and a very pristine wilderness ecosistem in danger.But a new element is in the discusion very powerfull ecologic groups opposed to dams including some of USA who baked chilean ecologist one.The issue is very complex.Many people demands if developped countries and groups are right to be very simpatetic to care of environment in oher countries.But who pays the rise of the price of energy if it is scarce?Is not posible to import electricity.Besides international comunity give no any incentive to Chile if the alternatives used ass more ecological solutions like wind or sea complex to generate electricity.In fact both are more expensives.Other solution is nuclear centrals.But chileans are not very proclive to a dangerous energy source.The polemics is instaled.Certain the rivers Pascua and Backer region are anot yet very populated , but now with globalization of information is very dificult to discut the issue en four walls. Also chilean society are very strong minded over conservation of natural life and water conservation.It will be o a not very easier task to Endesa and other economics groups to build the proyected hidrolectrical complex.Recently the last experience was Ralco central,in Bio bio basin river in the very begining at andean Laja river r who was hardly resisted by pehuenches comunities living in the place.Certain Patagonia is not habited by mapuche people but the begining only of prospection studies has faced many ecologic and environment protection groups and the main weapon to impeach dams building is Internet.Many ires acumulated could be a hidden energy to menace plans of hidrolectrical consorciums to build the dams with a potential capacity of 2.400 Mega Wats or 30% of actual energy of water actually generated at Chile.But the question is if, a less if international comunity wih preserve wilderness at chilean Patagony is in disposition to share or pay to chilean society to preserve rivers basin untouched or sell oil to preferencial prices to generate energy.


Thursday, January 24, 2008


All years a japanese fleet cross over the seas to hunt whales.Antartica waters are not free to the active japonese fishing ships in charge to hunt them.The paradox is hunting a specimen that is only 1% of whale population after 40 years of efforts to conservate them.Nobody knows the results of the "scientific japonese research".Is necesary to kill a hundred of whales to know more about his biology or fisiology?The real fact are in Japan is legal to sell whales meat.More is a delikatessen dish and very expensive.Against world international public opinion all years in a world international forum who rules the whales matters Japan demands all years increase or lift the ban forbiding the hunting os some species in risk on extintion.A bizarre fact are that many without fishing or fishes population are incorpored to vote on back od Japonese demands.Many countries could be receiving not confirmed monetary aids from the japonese.Many of the tiny whale population arrives every years to south Chile shores near Antartica on his annual migration cycle.In fact are a Santuary in Chiloe sea waters a huge island in chilean patagonia area in were is forbiding the whale hunting.All survey in chilean public opinion shows a great mayority of chilean people are opposed to japonese whale hunting.the people demand dont refuel japonese fleet in charge of hunting or fishing on nearby of chilean waters.Nobody understand why Japan afford a high image cost could be in future to face a boycot of japonese manifactured products not only in chilean market besides in all South American area.


Tuesday, January 15, 2008


Last week arrived to Chile Stephen Hawking the famous english named the second Einstein of XX Century.The objetive is make a visit to Alvaro Bunster the director od The Centre Of Sciences a brain trust of scientist located at Valdivia in the South of the country.Hawkins is member of Lucasian Academy a renamed forum who has Newton as a member.Hawkins is one of the most briliant brain in theoretical fisics with research about the dark holes energy,the Big Bang an the begining of Universe.The election is not to hazard,Chile is far the best place to look in southern hemisphere the Universe.In fact many theoretical conclusions are demostrated by the observations made by astronomers of all world in a 25 Observatories located in Atacama Desert the driest place in the world without rain in 200 years,Besides Bunster team has made research about Antartica tectonics.Stephen that can not walk and speak by himself.Demostrate be a warm and very human person enjoy for people and making a trip over Llaima volcano in iruption till 2 weeks and after making a ship travel by Calle Calle river.At end gives a conference about the exterior of black holes.The ocasion was celebrates the 60 birthday of Bunster.

Thursday, January 10, 2008


Till morning today Llaima Volcan southern in Chile a very active volcan has enter in eruption.The mount about 4.000 meter high send a dark cloud of ashes who arrived today to Atlantic Ocean about 3.000 kilometers far in Argentina territory.In the nearby in a very beatifull surrounding lives abot 5.000 people most little farmers.No casualites are reported.The peak all the year covered with ice is today all melt and in the night fire is viewed on the volcan mouth.The cloud reach about 3.500 meter high.All the volcan area is plenty of araucarias a tree about 5.000 years old a relictus os past age and is a national natural monument in Chile.Besides is a lake near the volcan basis.Yesterday Stehpen Hawking who visit a fisic friend in Chile has observed the active volcan inside a airplane.

homo.luden andensis


Last end of week in a riot with police forces a mapuche university student was shot and dead.The incidents took place during a intentional forest burning made by a group on mapuche etnia opposed to forest firms owner of the most land reforest to obtaim timber and celulose.The mapuche vindicatates more land,in fact a devolution of millions of acres delivered by old governments to colonization by european and chilean inmigrants during the end of XIX century.Governmet has delivered about 500.000 has during the democratics government to comunities as compensation.Araucanian the true name of about 600.000 people was a migrant people living on South of Chile and Argentina.Never was defeated by the spanish army and only after many quarrels with chilean troops in XIX century sign a peace agreement to share his territory.Most living in rural area are poor peasants and others most young people migrates to cities as urban workers,the women in domestic services and the men in low calificated works.Mapuche contest the building of dams to obtain electricity in his ancestral territories,the surrounding of his land by forest plantations, who in his view use all water by the trees.but specially the decrimination by chilean society and his poorness.Also demand a more equalitiarian acces to modernity and obtain the recognization of his cultural diversity.Certain mapuche groups intents radicalized his demand burning not only plantation also trucks an forestry machines.Many are en jail for this acts.The last incident is a warning to authorities because the demand could extend to big cities in where mapuche demands are supported by other leftist organization in universities an human rights groups.The Catrileo death could be a simbol to mapuche aims in the next times.

Sunday, January 06, 2008


The Guardian of London says in a article that many millionaires including Bill Gates help to building Cerro Pachon en chilean andean the world biggest digital camera to take images on the sky.The cost 400 US millions.Principal objetive provide early warning of asteroid crush.Rounded by the highest mounts in the southern hemisphere Andean chain rounded Pachon are on average 6.000 meter conteining many glaciers.The largest mirror never contructed in the a laboratory at Arizona University.Yhe main funtion of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope is survey all sky several times in the week something never made before.The came from the most greatest digital camera in the world with 3.200 megapixeles. Gates said they will pur terabyte of dates rurning astronomy in a software.It will be the first Internet Telescope and in the proyec is shared by 23 Universities,laboratories an private organizations

s of dates, and the Telescope take a picture of size of the moon every 15 seconds.
turn astronomy into a software issue by writing code and database queries to mine the night sky and recover its secrets.
"LSST is truly an internet telescope which will put terabytes of data each night into the hands of anyone that wants to explore it. [It is] a shared resource for all humanity . the ultimate network peripheral device to explore the universe," he said.
The donations will keep on track the construction of three large mirrors and three refractive lenses which are the most important and expensive part of the machine.
The first stages of production for the two largest mirrors are under way at the Mirror Laboratory at the University of Arizona. The teloscope basis is located over 2700 meters above in chilean Andes an his camera is expected take over 200.000 pictures and the end date of contruction is 2011.The short time of 15 seconds is enough to register every fain objet falling in the sky as the mini meteorites
Launched in 2000, the project is a partnership based in Tucson, Arizona, and split among 23 universities, laboratories and private entities. Once the mirrors are ready they will be hauled up the 2,690-metre peak and installed in a dome due for construction in 2011. "First light", as astronomers call their scoping, should begin four years later.
The camera is expected to take more than 200,000 pictures. Processing that information is expected to be the most technically difficult part of the project.
The camera's 15 second exposure should be long enough to record images of even very faint objects such as asteroids and so-called near-Earth objects. By monitoring them night after night, it should be possible to infer their orbit around the sun and hence how likely they are to slam into Earth.
That is how the project's director sold the LSST to congressmen in November. "The ability to detect virtually every potentially hazardous near-Earth object and determine its orbit with precision transforms that statistical threat into a deterministic prediction," said Anthony Tyson, at the University of California, Davis.
But it will also be useful for basic science. Its time-lapse images can be used to create 3D maps of the mass distribution in the universe. That should not only help to trace billions of galaxies, but also tell cosmologists more about the mysterious and recently discovered "dark energy" that is driving the expansion of the universe.
Every night the telescope will pull in 30 terabytes of image data (about 190 times more than a top of the range iPod) which will be made available free on the internet. "People can find out what's going on everywhere in the sky, and no one has ever done that before - not even come close," said Donald Sweeney, the project manager. "There are lots of things that happen every night in the sky, and no one has been able to track them and detect them."
Cerro Pachon, located in northern Chile near the city of Vicuña, is a foothill of the Andes but high enough to escape haze and light pollution. It was chosen over a site in Mexico because it hosts two other large telescopes known as Gemini South and SOAR, delivering a ready-made Other eyes on sky are: The European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope in Chile's Atacama desert has produced the first direct images of planets outside our solar system.
· At $1bn the Atacama Large Millimetre Array in Chile will be the world's most expensive observatory. By 2012 it is expected to discover a new galaxy every three minutes.
· The southern hemisphere's biggest optical eye is the Southern African Large Telescope in the Karoo desert.
· The proposed Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will be 100 times more powerful than any other instrument. Construction is due in 2011, with South Africa and Australia competing to be hosts.